Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod

Metadata also available as

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod
Edition: 1.0
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1048
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Woods Hole Science Center, Woods Hole, MA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Online_Linkage:
\\env-filer.env.govt.state.ma.us\czmshared\czm\Morris\GIS_data\geological\cc_sun_mosaic.tif
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: L.J. Poppe
Originator: V.F. Paskevich
Originator: B. Butman
Originator: P.C. Valentine
Originator: W.W. Danforth
Originator: D.S. Foster
Originator: D.S. Blackwood
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Geological Interpretation of Bathymetric and Backscatter Imagery of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts
Edition: 1.0
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1048
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Woods Hole Science Center, Woods Hole, MA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/>
Description:
Abstract:
This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system during USGS survey 98015, conducted November 9 - 25, 1998. The surveys were conducted using a Simrad EM 1000 multibeam echo sounder mounted aboard the Canadian Coast Guard vessel Frederick G. Creed. This multibeam system utilizes 60 electronically aimed receive beams spaced at intervals of 2.5 degrees that insonify a strip of sea floor up to 7.5 times the water depth (swath width of 100 to 200 m within the survey area). The horizontal resolution of the beam on the sea floor is approximately 10% of the water depth. Vertical resolution is approximately 1 percent of the water depth.
The sun-illuminated topographic (shaded relief) image has a 4-m pixel size and was created by vertically exaggerating the topography two times and then artificially illuminating the relief by a light source positioned 45 degrees above the horizon from an azimuth of 0 degrees. In the resulting image, topographic features are enhanced by strong illumination on the northwestward-facing slopes and by shadows cast on southeastern slopes. The image also accentuates small features (relief of a few meters) that could not be effectively shown as contours alone at this scale. Unnatural-looking features or patterns oriented parallel or perpendicular to survey tracklines are artifacts of data collection and environmental conditions.
The data have a weak striping that runs parallel to the ship's track. Some of the striping is the result of poor data return at nadir that appears as evenly-spaced thin speckled lines. Some striping is also due to critical angle effects, where the intensity of return varies as a function of the angle of incidence of the incoming sound on the seafloor (Hughes-Clark and others, 1997).
Note: The north and south sections of this data set were mosaiced and then reprojected from their native projection into North American Datum 1983 (NAD83) / Massachusetts State Plane coordinate system, Mainland Zone (Fipszone 2001) meters by the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management on Sept. 5, 2006.
Purpose:
To release a digital map (GeoTIFF image) derived from mulitbeam observations that shows sea floor backscatter intensity (a measure of sea floor texture and roughness) at a spatial resolution of 4 m/pixel.
Supplemental_Information:
Relief or hillshading is used to visually enhance the terrain features by simulating the appearance of the effects of sunlight falling across the surface of the land. Hill Shading estimates surface reflectance from the sun at any altitude and any azimuth. The reflectance is calculated in a range from 0 to 100.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19981109
Ending_Date: 19981125
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.317121
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -69.815151
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.122642
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.610615
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: General
Theme_Keyword: U.S. Geological Survey
Theme_Keyword: USGS
Theme_Keyword: Woods Hole Science Center
Theme_Keyword: Frederick G. Creed
Theme_Keyword: Sea Floor Mapping
Theme_Keyword: Multibeam Echo Sounder
Theme_Keyword: Sun-illuminated Topography
Theme_Keyword: shaded relief
Theme_Keyword: hill shade
Theme_Keyword: grey scale image
Theme_Keyword: gray scale image
Theme_Keyword: GeoTIFF image
Theme_Keyword: Multibeam bathymetry
Theme_Keyword: Simrad EM1000
Theme_Keyword: WHSC
Theme_Keyword: CMGP
Theme_Keyword: Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Theme_Keyword: Field Activity Number 98015
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: oceans and estuaries
Theme_Keyword: oceans and coastal
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: General
Place_Keyword: Cape Cod
Place_Keyword: Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: Cape Cod National Seashore Park
Place_Keyword: U.S. East Coast
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: North America
Place_Keyword: Atlantic Ocean
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Data are not for navigational purposes.
Public domain data are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Lawrence J. Poppe
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2314
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lpoppe@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/bathymetry/sun_illum/geo/capenorthsun_geo4m_wgs84-thumb.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Thumbnail image showing the extent and coverage of the data layer.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/bathymetry/sun_illum/geo/capenorthsun_geo4m_wgs84.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: Image map showing the extent and coverage of the data layer.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 3; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.3.0.1770
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: L.J. Poppe
Originator: D.S. Foster
Originator: W.W. Danforth
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Character and distribution of exposed glaciodeltaic deposits off outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and their effects on hydrogeology and benthic habitats
Edition: 1.0
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Geo-Marine Letters
Issue_Identification: v. 26
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Germany
Publisher: Springer

Data_Quality_Information:
Completeness_Report:
All collected data were processed and used to produce this dataset.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: Navigation was by differential GPS.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Type_of_Source_Media: DVD-ROM
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19981109
Ending_Date: 19981125
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: 98015_multibeam_data
Source_Contribution:
The original multibeam bathymetric data acquired with a Simrad EM 1000 echosounder during USGS cruise 98015 aboard the Canadian Coast Guard vessel Frederick G. Creed.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
(1) Data and acquisition processing at sea: After the echo sounder data were logged onto the hard disk of the Sun workstation, a suite of processing software developed by the Ocean Mapping Group (www.omg.unb.ca/~jhc/SwathEd.html) was used to correct for artifacts and errors that may have been introduced during data collection. This software also enhanced the corrected data by resolving beam pattern and aspect ratio distortions and by imposing a linear contrast stretch before it generated bathymetric and sidescan sonar image mosaicks in a Mercator projection. All data processing described here is initiated using Silicon Graphics workstations as soon as each acquisition file is closed by the Simrad Mermaid workstation (usually at the end of each survey line). Additional processing was done in the lab to correct for fluctuations in sea level during the survey and for artifacts in the data files that were not corrected in the field (see below).
(2) The processing and editing steps on board the ship were:
(A.) Demultiplex, or unravel, the acquired Simrad data files using RT to generate separate files containing navigation, depth soundings, sidescan sonar backscatter values, and sound velocity information.
(B.) Automatically reject bad data (autoRejectSoundings). For the multibeam soundings, reject data outside expected depth ranges (operator's decision based on nautical chart data); for navigation data, reject fixes with poor GPS statistics.
(C.) Edit the navigation data on-screen using jview to remove undesirable points, including turns at the ends of survey lines.
(D.) Edit the multibeam soundings on-screen using swathed to remove individual anomalous soundings.
(E). Merge tidal information and the corrected navigation back (mergetide and mergenav) into the data files. Tidal information was obtained from predicted tides using the Xtide program <http://www.flaterco.com/xtide/xtide.html>), which generated predicted tides based on the harmonic coefficients for Chatham provided by the Xtide program.
(F.) Map the bathymetric soundings from each processed data file onto a Mercator grid using weigh_grid (a SwathEd utility) with node spacings and scale selected by the operator. The grid file (capenorth.r4) was a floating point binary file.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: 98015_multibeam_data
Process_Date: Unknown
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: capesouth.r4
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Bill Danforth
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2274
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bdanforth@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Using addSUN, the bathymetric raster files were generated using the mapped grid node information to depict the depth information in a shaded relief Mercator map. The shaded-relief image was generated using a sun elevation angle of 45 degrees from an azimuth of 0 degrees, and a vertical exaggeration of 4 times to emphasize sea floor features.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorth.r4
Process_Date: Unknown
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorthsun_mer4m.tif
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Bill Danforth
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2274
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bdanforth@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The imagery was converted from mercator projection to geographic.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorthsun_mer4m.tif
Process_Date: Unknown
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorthsun_geo4m_wgs84.tif
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Valerie Paskevich
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2281
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vpaskevich@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description: Dataset copied.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: D:\GIS_data\outer_cape\cc_sun_mosaic.tif
Process_Step:
Process_Description: Metadata imported.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: W:\czm\Morris\XML_metadata\moris_cc_sun_illum_bathy_rd.xml
Process_Date: 20090813
Process_Time: 13564300

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 16220
Column_Count: 11758
Vertical_Count: 1

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: State Plane Coordinate System
State_Plane_Coordinate_System:
SPCS_Zone_Identifier: 2001
Lambert_Conformal_Conic:
Standard_Parallel: 41.716667
Standard_Parallel: 42.683333
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -71.500000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 41.000000
False_Easting: 200000.000000
False_Northing: 750000.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 3.464501
Ordinate_Resolution: 3.464501
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Depth_System_Definition:
Depth_Datum_Name: Mean Lower Low Water
Depth_Distance_Units: Meters
Depth_Encoding_Method: Explicit depth coordiate included with horizontal coordinates.

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: cc_sun_mosaic.tif.vat
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ObjectID
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Value
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Count
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: There are no attributes associated with a GEOTIFF image.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Lawrence J. Poppe
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2314
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lpoppe@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
Although all data have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and/or related materials. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imple endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: TIFF
Format_Specification: GeoTIFF
Format_Information_Content:
GeoTIFF image, world file, browse graphics and XML and text formatted metadata files.
File_Decompression_Technique: zip archive
Transfer_Size: 0.000
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/bathymetry/sun_illum/geo/capenorthsun_geo4m_wgs84.zip>
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/bathymetry/sun_illum/geo/capenorthsun_geo4m_wgs84.tif>
Network_Resource_Name: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/htmldocs/data_catalog.htm>
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/bathymetry/sun_illum/geo/>
Access_Instructions: Data are downloadable via the World Wide Web (WWW).
Offline_Option:
Offline_Media: DVD-ROM
Recording_Capacity:
Recording_Density: 4.7
Recording_Density_Units: Gbytes
Recording_Format: UDF
Fees: None
Technical_Prerequisites:
This image is available as a GeoTIFF image with an accompanying world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image.
Available_Time_Period:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2006

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20081031
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Larry Poppe
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2314
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lpoppe@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Metadata_Use_Constraints: None

Generated by mp version 2.9.6 on Thu Aug 13 15:27:21 2009