cape_mosaic.tif: 4-m Image of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Northeastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015

Metadata also available as

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
cape_mosaic.tif: 4-m Image of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Northeastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015
Edition: 1.0
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1048
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Woods Hole Science Center, Woods Hole, MA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Online_Linkage:
\\env-fp-cau01\Shared\czm\MORIS_on_the_web\GIS_data\geological\cc_cape_mosaic.tif
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: L.J. Poppe
Originator: V.F. Paskevich
Originator: B. Butman
Originator: P.C. Valentine
Originator: W.W. Danforth
Originator: D.S. Foster
Originator: D.S. Blackwood
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Geological Interpretation of Bathymetric and Backscatter Imagery of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts
Edition: 1.0
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1048
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Woods Hole Science Center, Woods Hole, MA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/>
Description:
Abstract:
This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of northern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system during USGS survey 98015, conducted November 9 - 25, 1998. The surveys were conducted using a Simrad EM 1000 multibeam echo sounder mounted aboard the Canadian Coast Guard vessel Frederick G. Creed. This multibeam system utilizes 60 electronically aimed receive beams spaced at intervals of 2.5 degrees that insonify a strip of sea floor up to 7.5 times the water depth (swath width of 100 to 200 m within the survey area). The horizontal resolution of the beam on the sea floor is approximately 10% of the water depth. Vertical resolution is approximately 1 percent of the water depth.

With backscatter intensity, the intensity of the acoustic return from the sea floor from the multibeam system, is a function of the properties of the surficial sediments and of the bottom roughness. Generally, a strong return (light gray tones) is associated with rock or coarse-grained sediment, and a weak return (dark gray tones) with fine-grained sediments. However, the micro-topography, such as ripples, burrows, and benthic populations also affect the reflectivity of the sea floor. Direct observations, using bottom photography or video, and surface samples, are needed to verify interpretations of the backscatter intensity data. The backscatter data have a weak striping that runs parallel to the ship's track. Some of the striping is the result of poor data return at nadir that appears as evenly-spaced thin speckled lines. Some striping is also due to critical angle effects, where the intensity of return varies as a function of the angle of incidence of the incoming sound on the seafloor (Hughes-Clark and others, 1997).

Note: The north and south sections of this data set were mosaiced and then reprojected from their native projection into North American Datum 1983 (NAD83) / Massachusetts State Plane coordinate system, Mainland Zone (Fipszone 2001) meters by the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management on Sept. 5, 2006.

Purpose:
To release a digital map derived from multibeam observations that shows sea floor backscatter intensity (a measure of sea floor texture and roughness) at a spatial resolution of 4 meters per pixel.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19981109
Ending_Date: 19981125
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.525354
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -69.605814
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.149744
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.586605
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: General
Theme_Keyword: U.S. Geological Survey
Theme_Keyword: USGS
Theme_Keyword: Woods Hole Science Center
Theme_Keyword: WHSC
Theme_Keyword: Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Theme_Keyword: CMGP
Theme_Keyword: Frederick G. Creed
Theme_Keyword: Field Activity Number 98015
Theme_Keyword: Sea Floor Mapping
Theme_Keyword: Multibeam Echo Sounder
Theme_Keyword: Backscatter Intensity
Theme_Keyword: multibeam backscatter mosaic
Theme_Keyword: GeoTIFF Image
Theme_Keyword: greyscale image
Theme_Keyword: gray scale image
Theme_Keyword: Geographic Information System
Theme_Keyword: Sea Floor Geology
Theme_Keyword: Surficial Geology
Theme_Keyword: GeoTIFF Image
Theme_Keyword: Multibeam
Theme_Keyword: Simrad EM1000
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: oceans and estuaries
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: General
Place_Keyword: Cape Cod
Place_Keyword: Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: Cape Cod National Seashore Park
Place_Keyword: U.S. East Coast
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: North America
Place_Keyword: Atlantic Ocean
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Lawrence J. Poppe
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2314
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lpoppe@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/backscatter/mosaic/geo/capenorthmos_geo4m_wgs84-thumb.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Thumbnail image showing the extent and coverage of the data layer.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/backscatter/mosaic/geo/capenorthmos_geo4m_wgs84.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: Image map showing the extent and coverage of the data layer.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.1.0.780

Data_Quality_Information:
Completeness_Report:
This image is complete; all available data were used to create the backscatter mosaic; no further processing and(or) modifications will be made.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
These data were navigated with a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS); they are accurate to +/- 3 meters, horizontally.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Type_of_Source_Media: DVD-ROM
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19981109
Ending_Date: 19981125
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: 98015_multibeam_data
Source_Contribution:
The original multibeam backscatter data acquired with a Simrad EM 1000 echosounder during USGS cruise 98015 aboard the Canadian Coast Guard vessel Frederick G. Creed
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Initial Data and acquisition processing at sea:

After the echo sounder data were logged onto the hard disk of the Sun workstation, a suite of processing software developed by the Ocean Mapping Group (www.omg.unb.ca/~jhc/SwathEd.html) was used to correct for artifacts and errors that may have been introduced during data collection. This software also enhanced the corrected data by resolving beam pattern and aspect ratio distortions and by imposing a linear contrast stretch before it generated bathymetric and sidescan sonar image mosaics in a Mercator projection. All data processing described here is initiated using Silicon Graphics workstations as soon as each acquisition file is closed by the Simrad Mermaid workstation (usually at the end of each survey line). Additional processing was done in the lab to correct for fluctuations in sea level during the survey and for artifacts in the data files that were not corrected in the field (see below).

The processing and editing steps on board the ship were:

(A.) Demultiplex, or unravel, the acquired Simrad data files using RT to generate separate files containing navigation, depth soundings, sidescan sonar backscatter values, and sound velocity information.

(B.) Automatically reject bad data (autoRejectSoundings). For the multibeam soundings, reject data outside expected depth ranges (operator's decision based on nautical chart data); for navigation data, reject fixes with poor GPS statistics.

(C.) Edit the navigation data on-screen using jview to remove undesirable points, including turns at the ends of survey lines.

(D.) Edit the multibeam soundings on-screen using swathed to remove individual anomalous soundings.

(E). Merge tidal information and the corrected navigation back (mergetide and mergenav) into the data files. Tidal information was obtained from predicted tides using the Xtide program <http://www.flaterco.com/xtide/xtide.html>), which generated predicted tides based on the harmonic coefficients for Chatham provided by the Xtide program.

(F.) Map the bathymetric soundings from each processed data file onto a Mercator grid using weigh_grid with node spacings and scale selected by the operator. The data files capenorth.asc and capenorth.xyz were produced from the gridded data. The data file capenorth.txt is a comma-delimited version of capenorth.xyz.

(G.) Map the extracted sidescan sonar backscatter values onto a digital mosaic using mos2 in the Mercator projection at a scale selected by the user.

Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: 98015_multibeam_data
Process_Date: Unknown
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorth.asc
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: capenoth.xyz
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorth.txt
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorthmos_mer4m.tif
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Bill Danforth
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2274
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bdanforth@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Map the extracted sidescan sonar backscatter values onto a digital mosaic using the SwathEd utility mos2 in the Mercator projection, having a central longitude of -70.3166667 degrees West, a latitude of true scale of 41.65 degrees north and the horizontal datum is WGS84.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorth.asc
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorth.xyz
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorth.txt
Process_Date: Unknown
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorthmos_mer4m.tif
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Bill Danforth
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2274
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bdanforth@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description: The imagery in Mercator projection was converted to geographic.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorthmos_mer4m.tif
Process_Date: 2004
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: capenorthmos_mer4m_wgs84.tif
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Valerie Paskevich
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Information Technology Specialist / GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2281
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vpaskevich@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description: Dataset copied.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: D:\GIS_data\outer_cape\cc_cape_mosaic.tif

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 15323
Column_Count: 18830
Vertical_Count: 1

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: State Plane Coordinate System
State_Plane_Coordinate_System:
SPCS_Zone_Identifier: 2001
Lambert_Conformal_Conic:
Standard_Parallel: 41.716667
Standard_Parallel: 42.683333
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -71.500000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 41.000000
False_Easting: 200000.000000
False_Northing: 750000.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 3.999993
Ordinate_Resolution: 3.999993
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Band_1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ObjectID
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Value
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Count
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: There are no attributes associated with the GEOTIFF image.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Lawrence J. Poppe
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2314
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lpoppe@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data: capenorthmos_geo4m_wgs84.tif
Distribution_Liability:
Although all data have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and/or related materials. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: TIFF
Format_Specification: GeoTIFF
Format_Information_Content:
GeoTIFF format backscatter mosaic, GeoTIFF world file and associated metadata
File_Decompression_Technique: zip archive
Transfer_Size: 0.000
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/backscatter/mosaic/geo/capenorthmos_geo4m_wgs84.zip>
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/backscatter/mosaic/geo/capenorthmos_geo4m_wgs84.tif>
Network_Resource_Name: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/htmldocs/data_catalog.htm>
Network_Resource_Name: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1048/data/backscatter/mosaic/geo/>
Access_Instructions: Data are downloadable via the World Wide Web (WWW).
Offline_Option:
Offline_Media: DVD-ROM
Recording_Capacity:
Recording_Density: 4.75
Recording_Density_Units: Gbytes
Recording_Format: UDF
Fees: None
Technical_Prerequisites:
This image is available as a GeoTIFF image with an accompanying world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image.
Available_Time_Period:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2006

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20060905
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: William Danforth
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2274
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bdanforth@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Metadata_Use_Constraints: None
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: <http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html>
Profile_Name: ESRI Metadata Profile

Generated by mp version 2.8.6 on Mon Aug 20 10:44:47 2007